Prof. Ir. Urip Santoso, S.I.Kom, M.Sc., Ph.D

Coordinator of Magister in Natural and Environmental Resources Management, Agriculture Faculty, University of Bengkulu.

What is Standard Operating Procedure?

Standard Operating Procedure is a set of guidelines in an organization that describes the procedures for routine activities. SOP is needed by an organization to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Before making the SOP, at the first level, the PSDA Masters must make a service quality policy which is usually stated in the vision, mission, and Strategic Plan of the PSDA Masters, which is then stated in the “quality manual”. The quality manual contains a quality policy and provides an overview of the core processes within an organization. The quality policy is then translated into SOPs (second level). SOPs are standard procedures that define how to carry out various responsibilities of related units relevant to service quality investigations. In order for the SOP to be implemented, it is necessary to make a technical description of the SOP contained in the work instructions in a work unit (3rd level). At the last level (level 4) can be divided into two. The first part includes the forms required to support service activities in the PSDA Masters, as well as related supporting documents. The second part includes records that serve as evidence that the core measures of service quality have been met. Records are useful for data analysis and continuous service improvement. The main keyword in making SOPs is that they are prepared based on the needs of stakeholders, both internal and external.

SOP Benefits

1. can be used as a means to communicate the teaching and learning process (PBM) in Masters Program PSDA Unib.

2. can be used as a reference tool in assessing PBM S2 PSDA

3. can be used as a guideline for lecturers of S2 PSDA Unib

4. can be used as a means of controlling and compensating if there is a change in the PBM S2 PSDA system

5. can be used as a means of auditing information systems in S2 PDSA.

How to prepare SOPs

A. SOP needs assessment

The first step in creating an SOP is an SOP needs assessment. If there is no SOP in a section/subsection, then the question that needs to be answered is ”What SOP is needed by a section/subsection/UNIB? If there is a SOP, the question is ”Are the existing SOPs able to meet the needs of the UNIB organization?

B. SOP Development

          The development steps are as follows:

1. Team formation and equipment

2. Information gathering and identification of alternatives.

3. Analysis and selection of alternatives.

4. Writing SOPs.

5. SOP Testing & Review

6. SOP approval

          The collection of information and data needed to make SOPs can be done through brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, surveys, benchmarks and document review. At this stage, it is necessary to understand what is PBM? It is necessary to identify the number of PBM services in S2 PSDA. Each type of service can be a separate SOP, or the types of services that are similar/continuous can be grouped together. Well, the services that have been grouped are made SOPs. Identify whether the service is in line with the PBM? Identify whether there is a PBM SOP in S2 PSDA? If so, is it in accordance with PSDA’s vision and mission, namely to provide excellent service? Are the services at S2 PSDA in accordance with the needs of stakeholders? Have the services performed been efficient and effective? Are there any problems in PBM service activities at S2 PSDA? Are existing procedures effective? Compare with procedures elsewhere? If there is a problem, how should the procedures be based on the available data and information? And others! For example, it was found that the teaching and learning process at S2 PSDA was less effective and many students had difficulties in PBM activities. This problem is then searched for the root of the problem, the relationship between problems etc., and based on this, an SOP is then made that is able to overcome the root of the problem.

          After we have collected the information and data needed and have identified what happened, what the root of the problem is, then the next step is to analyze and select alternative procedures (to solve the root problems in services) that have been identified to be standardized. In this stage we analyze a) the feasibility of the procedure: realistic? The implications? Possible reactions? Etc!, b) Implementation: can it be implemented? Need training? Need new facilities/infrastructure? Need a new position? Etc., c) Compliance with laws and regulations, d) political feasibility: reflects the aspect of accountability? Affecting the image of the PSDA S2 Study Program? Etc. The results of this activity can be workshopd to get input from various parties.

Tabel 1. SOP PBM

NoJurusan Kimia UnandFKIP UnjaS2 PSDA
1Persiapan perkuliahanRencana studiRencana studi
2Tugas akhirPembimbing akademikPembimbing akademik
4UASPelaksanaan kuliahPersiapan perkuliahan
5Pembuatan EPSBEDPembimbingan skripsiPelaksanaan kuliah
6Pembuatan KRSPelaksanaan praktikumTugas perkuliahan
7Pembuatan transkrip akademikSeminar skripsiKuiz
8Seminar hasilUjian skripsiUTS
9Perbaikan nilai BL UAS
10Pembuatan KRS Evaluasi PBM
11Ujian sarjana Entri nilai oleh dosen
12  Mekanisme mahasiswa konformasi nilai ujian
13  Pembuatan transkrip akademik
14  Perbaikkan nilai BL
15  Permintaan ATK
1176  Pembuatan surat keluar
18  Daftar praproposal
19  Daftar ujian proposal
20  Pelaksanaan ujian proposal
21  Daftar ujian draft tesis
22  Pelaksanaan ujian draft tesis
23  Daftar  ujian tesis
24  Pelaksanaan Ujian Tesis

After being analyzed, the next step is making SOPs. In this case, it is necessary to consider before making an SOP, namely about what type of SOP to be made, the SOP format chosen. As I said before, you can make SOPs for each type of service, but you can also group similar services and then make SOPs. For the last method, SOPs are compiled in the form of modules. If there are 10 services, then one SOP consists of 10 modules. The modules in the SOP consist of module names, objectives, scope, references, facilities, work procedures, flowcharts & attachments. SOP formats vary among organizations. There is no standard format that must be followed. In general, SOPs (administration) have the following completeness: a. Numbering system: important for the integration of individual SOPs into the whole system. b. SOP category: eg data handling (DATA), administration (ADM). c. Effective date: the date on which the SOP was officially adopted. d. Revision date: the date on which periodic revisions are required if necessary. e. Title page: title, SOP identification number, date of manufacture/revision, signature and date of signing by the official. f. Table of contents g. The procedure consists of: a) objectives, b) applicable: identifying when the procedures that have been developed must be carried out, c) summary, d) definition: identifying several definitions used in the related SOP, e) personnel qualifications: identifying several qualifications that must be possessed by the user, f) criteria, checklists or other standards that must be applied: identifying all the steps and materials needed to support the procedure, g) recording: noting the format used, the location of the file, etc. It is also possible to provide a background for making SOPs before writing goals. h. Quality control and quality assurance: describes several control steps in the process of sending or receiving a product. i. Reference

Contoh SOP

Contoh 1. SOP Pembimbingan Akademik Mahasiswa


DESTINATION This standard operating procedure aims to: 1. Explaining the duties, authorities and appointment of Academic Advisor lecturers 2. Explaining the procedures for academic guidance 3. Ensure the smoothness of the mentoring process according to the established quality standards 4. Facilitate the measurement of quality and performance SCOPE These SOPs include: 1. Duties, authorities, and appointment of Academic Advisors 2. Procedures for academic guidance 3. Standard guidance time for each activity

DEFINITION Academic Guidance is a consultation process by students to PA lecturers regarding the preparation of study plans and learning strategies in higher education. Academic Advisory Lecturer (PA) is a permanent lecturer at Jambi University who is appointed by the department/study program to provide academic guidance to several students according to their respective majors/study programs. REFERENCE 1. Academic Rules Based on SK. Rector of Unja Number: /J21/PP/2006 2. Faculty Handbook 3. Academic Calendar 4. Class Schedule DISTRIBUTION All PA lecturers, Departments and study programs in the Jambi University FKIP environment TERMS OF ACADEMIC GUIDANCE The implementation of educational programs on the basis of the Semester Credit System (SKS) is student-oriented, therefore guidance to students is very necessary. Guidance is carried out so that students take well-planned lectures and can complete their studies on time without experiencing obstacles. Therefore, it is necessary to appoint an Academic Supervisor to guide several students and determine their duties and authorities. Duties of Academic Advisors: 1. Helping students to prepare study plans from the first semester to the end of their studies 2. Give consideration about the courses that can be taken in the semester that will take place according to academic regulations by taking into account the course code, credits, the Responsible Lecturer (PJ), compulsory/choice courses and PS class/department/section 3. Validate KRS/KPRS, change values ​​and sign KHS 4. Notify students if there are still errors in filling out the KRS or students have not filled out the KRS 5. Recording and evaluating the programs undertaken by the students they supervise in predetermined notes/files so that they are easy to monitor. 6. Mastering the curriculum followed by his guidance students 7. Knowing the activities of the students who are mentored 8. Set and announce tutoring schedule outside the university’s schedule 9. Guiding students with good guidance 10. Report to the head of the department/study program if he is going to leave the assignment Academic Advisory Lecturer Authority: 1. Giving advice to students who are mentored 2. Give a warning to students if they violate the student code of ethics 3. Helping overcome problems that hinder the smooth study of students who are mentored both academically and outside of academics 4. Forward student problems that are not under their authority or beyond the ability of PA lecturers to those in authority in the department/study program to be resolved 5. Sending student guidance to counseling lecturers if needed. Appointment of Academic Supervisor: 1. The Dean appoints a PA lecturer or a proposal from the head of the department/head of the study program as outlined in the dean’s decree every semester to guide 5-10 students (except in forced circumstances, more than 10 students may be allowed) 2. PA lecturers who are not on campus for a while, while at that time student guidance is urgently needed, then the task as PA is replaced by the Head of the Department/Study Program 3. PA lecturers who leave their duties for 6 months or more, their duties as PA are replaced by other lecturers with a dean’s decision letter at the suggestion of the Head of the Department / Head of the Study Program. ACADEMIC GUIDANCE PROCEDURES 1. PA lecturers determine and announce the guidance schedule at the beginning of each semester 2. The PA lecturer evaluates the results of the previous semester’s lectures and provides direction on courses (including course codes, credits, PJ lecturers, compulsory/optional courses) and the number of credits that can be taken in the semester that will take place at the mentoring meeting 3. Students fill out KRS/KPRS according to the schedule determined by the University 4. The student reports to the PA lecturer that he has finished filling in the KRS/KPRS to be validated 5. Lecturers validate the KRS within 2 weeks starting from the end of filling out the KRS by students 6. The PA lecturer advises students to print the KRS as proof of the current semester’s lectures


The procedure for student academic guidance by PA lecturers can be seen in the table below:

KegiatanUnit yang terkaitWaktuDokumen
MHSDosen PAJurusan
Dosen PA menetapkan dan mengumumkan jadwal bimbingan setiap awal semester 1   1   2 minggu sebelum pengisian KRSPengumuman
Dosen PA mengevaluasi hasil kuliah semester sebelumnya dan memberikan arahan tentang mata kuliah (meliputi kode mata kuliah, SKS, dosen PJ, mata kuliah wajib/pilihan) dan jumlah kredit yang dapat diambil pada semester yang akan berlangsung pada pertemuan pembimbingan tersebut 2   1 minggu sebelum pengisian KRSKHS/transkrip
Mahasiswa mengisi KRS/KPRS sesuai jadwal yang telah ditentukan oleh Universitas3     1 mingguJadwal kuliah, buku panduan
Mahasiswa melaporkan kepada dosen PA, bahwa ia telah selesai mengisikan KRS/KPRS untuk dapat divalidasi 4   4   2 hari setelah pengisian KRS/KPRSCopy KRS
Dosen memvalidasi KRS dalam waktu 2 minggu dimulai sejak berakhirnya pengisian KPRS oleh mahasiswa  5   1 minggu setelah pengisian KRS/KPRSCopy KRS
Dosen PA menyarankan kepada mahasiswa untuk mencetak KRS tersebut sebagai bukti kuliah semester berjalan6   6   1 minggu setelah validasi KRSPengumuman


  Disusun oleh:         Tim Jaminan Mutu FKIP Unja  Diperiksa oleh:         Dr. Herman Budiyono, M.Pd. Pembantu Dekan I    Disahkan oleh:         Drs. H. Amin Saib, M.M. Dekan

Daftar Pustaka

Anonim. ? SOP Preparing, approving and implementing SOP. California Department of pesticide regulation. ?

Anonimus. ? SOP PBM. FKIP Unja.

Anonimus. ? SOP PBM. Jurusan Kimia Unand.

Jifsan Good Aquacultural Practices Program. ? Standard Operating Procedures. ?

Lembaga Administrasi Negara RI.  2005. Penyusunan Standard Operating Procedures. Lembaga Administrasi Negara RI, Jakarta.

Montana Department. ? Guidance for preparing a standard operating procedure. ?

Pusat Informasi Lingkungan Bapedal. ? Bapedal Environmental Management Services Project. Egis Consulting. Jakarta.

QMS.? Peningkatan Manajemen SDM: Pengembangan Quality Management System. UI. Jakarta

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